The Vascular system is another name for the body's circulatory system, enabling blood to circulate throughout the body and transport oxygen, carbon dioxide, waste, and nutrients to and from cells and tissues. Vascular surgery involves treating and performing surgeries on the arteries and veins in most areas of the body except the heart and brain. Vascular surgeons may operate on many parts of the body including the arms and legs. Vascular surgery includes procedures performed on the aorta, carotid arteries, iliac, femoral, and tibial arteries. The surgery also involves operations on veins, particularly in the case of varicose veins or dialysis access surgery. The typical work of a vascular surgeon involves restoring blood flow after the blood vessels are damaged due to trauma, disease or other issues. They may have to do this through a bypass procedure, or an AV shunt in the case of dialysis. In the case of clogging in the carotid arteries, a carotid endarterectomy is performed in order to supply more blood to the brain.